Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of designing and tuning your website to maximize your findability and improve your rankings in organic (non-paid) search engine results. To maximize traffic, you need to take into consideration how search engines work when you design your website.

There are two ways of employing SEO.
The first, white hat SEO, refers to methods that are approved by search engines, do not attempt to deceive the search engines, and produce quality, long-term results. Top white hat techniques for SEO includes: offering quality content, using proper metadata and effective keywords, and having inbound links from relevant high-quality pages.

Black hat methods are used to deceive search engines. Although they may result in temporary improvement in search engines results, these tactics could get your site banned by the search engines.

Link Building
Link building is the process of increasing search engine rankings and traffic by generating inbound links to a particular website. Search engine algorithms regard each link as a vote for the destination website’s content, so sites with the greatest link popularity (or number of high-quality inbound links) appear highest on search engine result pages (SERPs).

The three most practiced methods of building links include reciprocal linking, link baiting, and natural linking.

Reciprocal linking is an exchange in which two related websites link to each other, increasing the link popularity of both sites and adding value for site users.
Link baiting involves creating attention-grabbing web content specifically for viral (exponentially increasing) exposure through social media and social bookmarking websites.
Natural linking is the process of building one-way inbound links by optimizing website content and user experience without the explicit solicitation of a backlink.

Search algorithms are continuously updated to prevent black hat SEOs from deceiving search engines with automated linking software and links from directories or other low-quality websites. One-way links from websites with strong, related pages are given greater weight than reciprocal links, links from sites with unrelated content or links from sites with low PageRank.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is the method of promoting your website to increase traffic and search results by raising the site’s visibility on search engine results pages.